Ethical Theories | Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics, Natural law, Risk and Responsibility

Ethical theories and principles are the fundamentals of ethical scrutiny since they are the standpoints from which direction can be acquired along the trail to decision making (Ethical Theory). Each theory stresses different points stressing on different facets of ethical dilemma and seeks to direct to the typically morally accurate resolve according to the guiding principle of the ethical theory itself (Ethical Theory).
For ethical theory to be beneficial it must be focused towards an ordinary set of objectives.  Ethical doctrines are the common goals each theory tries to accomplish in order to be efficacious. People base their personality preference of ethical theory based upon their life familiarity (Ethical Theory).
Theories: Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics, Natural law, Risk and Responsibility

Utilitarianism: The Greatest Good

Utilitarianism theory is developed on the grounds of being able to envisage the penalties of an accomplishment (Ethical Theory). A utilitarian views a choice that brings benefits to most people to be ethically precise. According to proponents of this theory, an individual can compare similar anticipated answers and use a spot scheme to decide which solutions yields maximum benefits to many people (Ethical Theory). This is the main benefit of Utilitarianism theory (Ethical Theory).

There are two categories of utilitarianism, act and rule (Ethical Theory). Act utilitarianism adheres to the meaning of utilitarianism as earlier described. An individual executes the work that remunerates a good number of citizens, despite   individual emotions or societal constraints such as laws. A rule utilitarian seeks to benefits the most people but only through the humane and rightful means. Inherit flaws in Utilitarianism theory is the flaws associated in predicting the future (Ethical Theory). The future is uncertain and can direct to unforeseen consequences making a serviceable look unprincipled as time surpasses.

Comparison of differing consequences on a similar scale as assumed in Utilitarianism theory is deemed impractical by critics because different solutions differ in quality to a large extent. As explained above, utilitarianism seeks to achieve maximum beneficial. Individual rights might thus be infringed, and justice may not be followed consequently oppressing the minority for the benefits of the majority.

Kantian Ethics | Duties and Rights

Immanuel Kant, the proponent of this theory argued that the results of an action are irrelevant to a moral evaluation of that action (Ethical Theory). What matters is the motivation behind an action. Actions that are taken out of sense of duty are moral because a person undertaking such an action thinks of doing the right thing as prompted by the action. An individual understands his or her duty by use of logic and consistence in reasoning. Failure to use logic and consistence is deemed immoral as a person will have double standards in his or her dealings with other people (Ethical Theory).

The basic rule of morality in this theory is called categorical imperative. This rule must be followed no matter what, not only in if it is convenient or it has a certain set of consequences. If humans want to act morally, they must follow this rule at all times, in all places and under all circumstances. Categorical imperative implies that if a person wants to act morally, and one would be happy if others acted upon it (Roger 2008). This theory argument is remarkably close to the golden rule, do unto others what one would have them do to someone (Ethical Theory). Thus, it is not ethical to use a person just for one own purposes. To do this is to deny a person his or her freedom.

Natural law | An Ethic of Right

Natural law has a long history going back to classical times. It has been variously interpreted and, but no single definitive definition has been given. Natural law distinctive feature has been a concentration on rights.  The laws set forth by the society are endorsed by large population or the ruling population. For instance, an individual lends his car to a friend.

A key impediment of this hypothesis is that one must interpret what are characteristics of a right in a society. Society determines what rights to be given to its general public. For these rights to be decided, the society must determine what are its goals and ethical priorities. Thus, it is evident in this theory that for it to be constructive it should be employed in conjunction with other theories, which explain societal goals.

Ethical Theories and Business

A business that basis its ethics on utilitarian theory must engage itself in community service and humanitarian deeds. Ethical Theories and Business is the most compatible venture which can best operate on achieving common moral. Their employees should be treated with the utmost respect for them to be able to reciprocate the same gesture to their clients.

Such a venture should deal with basic necessities and sell them to clients at the least price with no margin or give them freely. Ethical Theories and Business should be the resources at its disposal to ensure it continues running without reporting profits (Ethical Theory).

Kantian theory would be relevant if applied in the commercial businesses.  Such a business would have a benchmark in place on how to treat its employees and clients without bias. Motive behind the production of their products would be used to judge whether its activities are ethical or not. Profits and resources should be used to achieve the business long term objectives (Ethical Theory).

Rights theory would be applicable in all business contexts. Both employer and employees would be able to treat each other well without bias. Products offered would be quality having gone all stages all the necessary stages because employees would expect to get similar products if they were to exchange positions with the clients. Here, business would utilize resources and profits in ways they deem most beneficial to ensure all the stake holders achieve satisfaction from their actions (Ethical Theory).

Risk and Responsibility | Punishments for corporations that act unethically

Corporations are made up of conscience individuals and thus they are expected to act ethically (Ethical Theory). One of the punishments for corporations that act unethically is lawsuit. Any aggrieved that feels offended by the actions of an organization can pursue a legal action either seeking prevention of an action or compensation for damages. 

Fine in money terms is another punishment bestowed upon an organization for acting unethical. This can be arrived at following a court ruling or arbitrated outside the courts. However, the major punishment that corporations face is the closure of its operations (Ethical Theory). An organization that acts against the societal accepted norms and ethics will face strong opposition and might be forced to close down involuntarily.

Corporate entities are made up of people. These people are the same who build up a society. Though a corporation is said to have distinct existence from those who run it is evident that the leaders are the ones who make a decision concerning its activities.  Therefore, the same rules applied in judging societal members should be applied in judging corporation ethics.

Failure to this, many people will hide behind the corporation veil and acts unethically in the name of a corporation (Ethical Theory). Corporations should not be allowed to get away with unethical doings. They should be treated as an individual societal member and appropriate actions taken against them.

Ethical Theories: Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics, Natural law, Risk and Responsibility

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